1. Buyer Beware – A Guide to Buying Classic Video Games on eBay
  2. How To Wisely Buy A New Computer
  3. Beginner’s Guide to Computer Forensics
  4. Breaking the Computer Buying
  5. Computer Knowledge (Literacy)
  6. Evolution of Technology – The History of Computers
  7. Crunch Power And The Simulation Hypothesis
  8. Computer or Buy a New One?
  9. Online Computer Repair and Remote Virus Removal
  10. Are We Too Dependent on Computers?
  11. Cloud Computing – Is It Safe?
  12. Thirteen Steps to Successful Blogging
  13. 12 Things You Need to Know Before You Even Start a Blog
  14. Why I Love Blogging
  15. 7 Best Blogging Platforms to Start a Blog for Free
  16. 15 Reasons Why You Should Start a Blog Today
  17. Why You Should Blog To Make Money Online
  18. A Blog Marketing Plan – The Basics
  19. Why Most Bloggers Never See Their Blogs As a Business
  20. Use Blogging for Profit
  21. Five Smart Ways To Make Big Money From Blogging
  22. Arkansas Life Insurance Guide – How to Find Cheap Arkansas Term Life Insurance Rates
  23. Life Insurance Settlements Viewed Through the Eye of the NASD – A Study in Compliance
  24. It’s Ok to Say No to Technology for Your Kids and Why I Didn’t
  25. Tips to Secure Your Small Business Network
  26. New Business Startup Checklist
  27. Book Ghostwriter on Google
  28. 5 Steps on How to Start Affiliate Marketing for Beginners
  29. Shhh – Not In Front Of The Television
  30. What Every Investor Should Know About Options!
  31. Review: My Year With Microsoft Surface Pro
  32. Android 6.Zero Marshmallow: What’s on the Cards?
  33. Life Coaching – Past, Present, and Future
  34. Why Hire a Life Coach?
  35. The Condition For Man To Have Eternal Life
  36. Past Life – Wanting to Know Who I Was in My Past-Life
  37. Dividend Paying Whole Life Insurance – Understanding What Sets it Apart
  38. Step Up to a Better Life With the Help of a Good Coach
  39. 10 SEO Tips to Get Your WordPress Blog Ranking Highly in the Search Engines
  40. 4 Quick SEO Tips To Help You Make More Money From Home
  41. SEO Tips on Hiring an SEO Expert
  42. 9 Blog SEO Tips to Assist Your Blog Rankings
  43. Five SEO Tips: You Should Know
  44. Satellite Internet Access – No DSL Or Cable – No Problem
  45. Three Exchange Traded Funds to Invest in the Internet
  46. Large Companies Need Internet T3 Line
  47. Web Internet Marketing, Increase Income By Improving Sales Process In Any Business On The Internet
  48. The Key Role of InThe Key Role of Internet Service Providers To Their Subscribersternet Service Providers To Their Subscribers
  49. Satellite Internet: Getting Things Done Faster
  50. Learn More About Computer Internet Cable
  51. Wireless Internet for Laptops: The Norm Today
  52. Greater Opportunities for the Finer Salt Cave Here
  53. Internet Business Is a Pretty Big Place
  54. Should I Use The Internet for My Network Marketing Business?
  55. How Does Wireless Internet Work – Four Ways to Establish Wireless Connection to the Internet
  56. Speed Up Internet Windows 7
  57. Top Rural Area High Speed Internet Providers
  58. What Does Internet-Enabled Mean To The Average Construction Professional?What Does Internet-Enabled Mean To The Average Construction Professional?
  59. Back To School Internet Safety Tips For Parents
  60. 5 Great Uses of the Internet
  61. Comcast Internet Essentials Program – A Possible Solution To Help Bridge The US Digital Divide
  62. Kids Safety On The Internet – The Technology Blame Game?
  63. Internet Marketing Pt 1
  64. The Internet in Our Future
  65. What Is Broadband Internet? My Options
  66. How to Choose Your Internet Download Speed?
  67. Tips to Keep in Mind While Going for Internet Service
  68. What Can Broadband Internet Do For Me?
  69. The Growth of the Internet Economy
  70. What Are The Advantages Of Satellite Internet Over DSL Internet?
  71. The Most Interesting Facts About Broadband Internet
  72. Is a Wireless Internet Connection Right For You?
  73. Advantages of Getting Internet Connection From Broadband Internet Service Providers
  74. The Primary Duty of the Intermediary in Internet Oil Trading and Refined Petroleum Product Deals
  75. How Internet Brokers and Agents Kill Petroleum Deals and Oil Deals As Intermediaries in Trading
  76. Helpful Tips In Saving From Costs Of High Speed Internet
  77. 50 Amazing Facts About the Internet
  78. The Power of Internet: It’s Like a Magic!
  79. The Truth About Internet Money
  80. Effects of Internet in Today’s Lifestyles
  81. Selecting the Best Type of Internet Service Provider for Your Needs
  82. Boosting Internet Access Resilience, ISP Multihoming Explained
  83. How the Internet Is Structured
  84. Where Internet Jurisdiction Can Get Your Business Sued!
  85. Important Information About The Internet And Computers
  86. Rural Wireless Broadband Internet – How Does It Work And How Can I Get It?
  87. Flattening The American Internet
  88. Purchase Order Financing Tips and Secrets for Canadian Firms Seeking Trade Finance
  89. 7 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Palm Springs
  90. Are Inventory Financing Lenders and P O Factoring Solutions Your Best Business Financing Bet?
  91. Who’s Financing Inventory and Using Purchase Order Finance (P O Finance)? Your Competitors!
  92. Alternative Financing for Wholesale Produce Distributors
  93. Sources of Business Finance
  94. Alternative Sources of Business Growth Finance: There Is More Than One Way to Fund Growth
  95. Car Finance – What You Should Know About Dealer Finance
  96. Alternative Financing Vs. Venture Capital: Which Option Is Best for Boosting Working Capital?
  97. Best in Class Finance Functions For Police Forces
  98. Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories
  99. Immortalizing Values Through Education for Sustainable Development
  100. Italy bridge: State of emergency follows Genoa catastrophe
  101. New Zealand bans sales of houses to foreigners
  102. Mystery Russian satellite’s behaviour increases alarm in US
  103. Face transplant: A ‘second risk’ for young suicide survivor
  104. Stocks in the news: Kotak Mahindra Bank, ONGC, Fortis Health, Khadim, UPL, Hathway Cable, MMTC
  105. Teacher Education and Teacher Quality
  106. Making Online Education Attractive
  107. Education Loans Can Augment The Boundaries Of What You Can Achieve
  108. Improving the Quality of Education: A 360 Degree Perspective on Education CSR in India
  109. Educational Problem Solving
  110. An Inside Look at the Special Education Profession
  111. 5 Best Layered Inverted Bob Haircuts You Should Try | Glaminati.Com
  112. Technology’s Effect on Commercial Real Estate in a Recession
  113. Trends in Technology
  114. Monitor Technology Explained
  115. Pros And Cons Of Online Education For The World Citizen
  116. Technology and Innovation Management
  117. Impact Of Technology In Banking
  118. Technology – Who Needs It?
  119. Implementing New Technology
  120. Automotive Advertising Agencies Must Use Yesterday’s Knowledge & Tomorrow’s Technology to Survive
  121. Cool Gadgets Shopper – Irresistible Gadgets Your Customers Will Love
  122. Do What You Do Best – Realistic Technology Tips For Paralegals
  123. Top 5 Twisted, Yet Fun Games of All Time
  124. Difference Between On-Campus Education and Online Education
  125. Electronics Gadgets Selling Tutorial: 15+ Wee Devices That Will Make Your Store a Big Hit On The Net
  126. Electronic Gadgets Sales For Morons: Ten+ Devices You Can Wear
  127. Self-Defense Gadgets And Gizmo’s – Should You Carry A Personal Safety Weapon?
  128. The Many Gadgets Available To Compliment Both Him And Her
  129. Kitchen Equipment And Gadgets For Your Raw Food Kitchen
  130. Buying a Clinical Information Technology System
  131. Cool Gadgets Shopper – Why You Need A Laser Light
  132. The Newest Home Electronics and the Latest Travel Gadgets
  133. Spy Gadgets Hints: Where to Use 17 Different Camouflaged Cameras
  134. Selling Automobile Dealerships to Public Companies – Effect of Framework Agreements
  135. Interview with Dr Renato C Nicolai, Author of “The Nightmare That Is Public Education”
  136. Millennium Education Development – Ways To Achieve
  137. Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And ChallengesGlobalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges
  138. Keep Your PC Healthy With Computer Tips & Tricks
  139. Use This Simple Computer Tip to Save Time Using the Internet
  140. 5 Stress Reducing Computer Tips
  141. Computer Tips From My Journal
  142. Speed Up Computer Tips
  143. Best Computer Tips to Help With Slowing Computer Problems
  144. Essential Computer Tips You Should Learn Right Now
  145. Home Computing Tips for Getting More From Your Technology
  146. Computer Tips that Help Small Businesses Operate Profitably
  147. Computer Tips – Some Useful Computer Tips For Average Computer User
  148. Spyware – Now a Problem for Mac Users as Well
  149. 15 Alluring Stacked Bob Haircuts to Brighten Your Day| Lovehairstyles.com
  150. The Non-Hostile Overview Of Choosing A PC Or Mac For Your Computing Needs
  151. What Went Wrong? When Relationships Go From Hot To Cold
  152. Malware on the Mac – Viruses, Spyware, Worms, and Other Digital Nasties Are Coming to the Mac
  153. How to Run Windows on a Mac
  154. Fixing a Slow Mac: Discover The Ultimate Solution
  155. Advantages and Features of Mac Computers
  156. Switching From PC to Mac
  157. Mac Mini User Guide
  158. The Short Awkward Life of Mac Remora
  159. Mac Media Center
  160. Software As a Service (SaaS) Software on Demand – Using SaaS the Smart Way
  161. 10 Ways Baby Boomers Can Be Happier in 2018
  162. Predictive Dialer Software – Functions, Benefits and Features of This Tool
  163. Do You Have What It Takes?
  164. Is Technology a Bringer of Great Promise or Great Peril?
  165. What to Look for When Hiring an HVAC Professional
  166. Four Steps To Become Successful With Affiliate Marketing
  167. Eleven Minimalist Mindset Tips
  168. Miracles, The Power of the Web, Selfless Love and Acts of Kindness
  169. Top 10 Causes of Online Marketing Burnout
  170. Welfare of the Internet of Things
  171. Operational Route Accounting ERP Software: Benefits and Obstacles
  172. 3 Benefits to Using Cloud Yoga Business Software for Your Yoga Studio
  173. Software Engineering and the Intelligence Community – Setting Real Time Standards
  174. Importance of Software Testing in the IT Industry
  175. Death of an Automobile Dealership
  176. Electronics Gadgets – 13-Plus Disclaimers and Disclaimer Templates to Keep You Out of Trouble
  177. Automobile Accidents Are Easy to Prevent Using Modern Technology
  178. Compensation Caused via Automobile Accidents
  179. Site Control For Automobile Dealerships in the 21st Century
  180. The Automobile: Profit and Status, Waste and Pollution
  181. A Subjective Insight of the Future Automobile
  182. How to Save on Automobile Insurance
  183. Forty Years of Sheer Galveston Fascination
  184. Visit the Beautiful Places in Darjeeling, the Queen of the Himalayas
  185. Rhode Island Personal Injury Law FAQS and Automobile – Car Accidents – through a RI Lawyer – Attorney
  186. Buying and Selling Automobile Dealerships – Limitations When Negotiating the Contract
  187. Confused With All the Travel Information at the Internet?
  188. Friendly Places to Travel With Grand Children
  189. I’m Going to Cuba – And Other Adventures!
  190. The Trek to Upper Mustang – The Forbidden Kingdom
  191. Tazaungmon And The Tazaungdaing Light Festival
  192. Explore Antigua
  193. Cuba: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
  194. The South Shore Pub Tour Along Nova Scotia’s Fabulous South Shore Lighthouse Route
  195. How to Get Started With Sports Betting
  196. The National Service Factor in Sports Development
  197. Title IX – Sports
  198. A Brief Theology of Sports
  199. Youth Sports – The Role of Organized Sports in Your Child’s Life
  200. Sport and the Russian Revolution
  201. Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management
  202. Which Software Testing Company?
  203. Accounting and Payroll Software – Industry Jargon Defined
  204. The Case for Flag Football As an Olympic Sport
  205. Peak Performance in Sports
  206. Sports Betting Champ, John Morrison Sports Betting Product Review!
  207. What Is iCloud, and Do I Need It?
  208. Is the iPhone 4S a Huge Waste of Money? Find Out Why You Should Keep Your iPhone four and Not Upgrade
  209. Should I Upgrade My iPad? What’s Inside Does Not Matter That Much
  210. How Is Apples IOS 6 Passbook App Going to Change the Electronic Wallet World?
  211. Ultima Forever: Quest for the Avatar iOS (Pre) Review
  212. Five Yes’ to the iPhone 5S!
  213. Areas That iPhone 4 Still Crumble to Android
  214. New Mobile Applications Stock Market
  215. ICloud – The Essential Guide
  216. An Introduction to Mobile Applications
  217. Apple’s IOS Vs Google’s Android OS Vs Blackberry’s Rim Vs Microsoft’s Windows Mobile
  218. Finding The Best Small Business Scheduling Software
  219. The Top Facebook Games of 2010
  220. Most Anticipated Video Games of 2010
  221. Different Types of Card Games
  222. Apple iOS five.0 Features: Notifications, iMessages and All Other Goodies You Need to Know
  223. 10 Ways to Market Your Mobile App
  224. Mobile Application Development – Current Technologies
  225. Understanding Mobile Phones
  226. Rapid Web-Based Desktop And Mobile Application Development
  227. Introduction to Designing Open Source Games for the Google Smart Phones
  228. History of Video Games – The First Video Game Ever Made?
  229. Mobile Sales Force Automation – How businesses doubled its income quantity with wi-fi technologies
  230. The Mobile Landscape – The Truth Behind the Hype
  231. Everything About Mobile Apps That You Want to Know!
  232. Considerations When Creating A Mobility Extension To The Corporate Network
  233. Tablet Wars! VHS or Betamax? Android, Apple, or Playbook?
  234. How to Select the Best Android Tablet
  235. Purchasing a Top Android Phone is a Good Decision
  236. An Introduction to Forensics Data Acquisition From Android Mobile Devices
  237. Comparing the Widows Mobile and Android Develpment Platform
  238. Every Man Is An Island: The Fragmentation of Android
  239. Google’s Android Phones Challenge Apple iPhone For Smartphone Market Share
  240. Android User Security
  241. 10 Free Android Apps That Will Actually Make You Money While Shopping!
  242. How to Pick Video Games Both Parents and Their Kids Will Love
  243. Exercise for the Brain
  244. How Prefabrication Is Helping the Hospitality Sector
  245. IPhone Vs Android Battle Royale
  246. Eight Ways To Awaken Your Greatness And Affirm Your True Power
  247. Why You’re So Damn Ugly And How To Become Beautiful Or Handsome
  248. The Power Of Awareness: How To Cultivate Mindfulness In Your Everyday Life
  249. IRR Transfer for Dependency or Hardship
  250. The Cure To Loneliness
  251. Top Ways to Prevent Data Loss
  252. Five Ways to Build Enterprise Mobile Apps “The Right Way”
  253. 6 Website Must-Have’s for Small Businesses
  254. Top 5 Most Important Aspects of Your Game
  255. How To Not Fail With Your New Year’s Resolutions
  256. Extreme Celestial Magnifying Glass Detects Dim Galaxies In The Primeval Universe
  257. How to Worship God According to Jesus
  258. Particles Born In A Black Hole’s Hostile Winds
  259. Hot Jupiter Planets: Any Way The Wind Blows
  260. Project-Based Teaching Methods
  261. Can Chia Seeds Reverse Diabetes?
  262. Mezcal in Oaxaca: State, National and Global Significance of Mexico’s Iconic Spirit
  263. The Magic Power of Perception
  264. Seven Chakras and Seven Colors Interconnected
  265. How to Control Stress Eating
  266. Killer Foods
  267. Stop Body Hate: Seven Mindset Qualities to Love Your Body
  268. What Is Calcium And What Does It Do?
  269. Calcium Needs At All Life Stages
  270. How to Achieve Health and Fitness
  271. 7 Main Reasons to Drink More Water
  272. 15 Amazing Healthcare Technology Innovations
  273. Earth’s Moon Has A Soggy Secret
  274. Messages From the Grave – Hit Over the Head With a Double Boiler
  275. Poetry and the Muses
  276. Cancer Antidote three-D
  277. A Fond Farewell To A Misty Moon
  278. What Makes a Good Game, and Where Will it Lead Us From Here?
  279. Not Even Jealousy Can Stop God
  280. The Mysterious Magnetic Personality Of Our Star
  281. Some Anti-Theist Religious Bits & Pieces: Round Sixteen
  282. Your Thoughts Determine Your Life
  283. What Are the Causes of PMS?
  284. 20 Exhilarating Destinations To Explore In India With Your Girl-Gang
  285. Psychology in China – Fairy Tales For Therapy
  286. 9 Tested search engine marketing Tips
  287. A Shaman Shares Knowledge
  288. Online Dating one hundred and one – Online Dating Basics
  289. Top 10 Doris Day Movies
  290. Creating A Life You Love
  291. How to Clean-up Your Allergies with 2 Easy Home Tips
  292. Vanity Killed My Car
  293. SEO Tips for Lawyers – Five Crucial Keys to Organic Search Engine Optimization
  294. 10 search engine marketing Tips to Be #1 on Search Engines
  295. Top five SEO Tips For WordPress
  296. How To Make More Money
  297. 25 search engine marketing Tips for Visitors and Search Engines Using Newswire Techniques
  298. The Growing Popularity of Free & Casual Games
  299. Top 10 SEO Tips That Will Get Your Site Ranked Higher in Google
  300. 6 search engine optimization Tips for Better Search Engine Rankings
  301. Five Ways To Make Money With Your Website
  302. Importance of Social Proof for the Hospitality Industry
  303. Five Important On Page search engine marketing Tips
  304. An Ounce of Prevention – 16 search engine marketing Tips
  305. 38+ Quick SEO Tips for E-Commerce Websites
  306. Avoiding Website Headaches
  307. RIP-OFFS: Online Computer Repair and Remote Virus Removal
  308. Should I Fix My Computer or Buy a New One?
  309. Computing Crunch Power And The Simulation Hypothesis
  310. The Evolution of Technology – The History of Computers
  311. Scope of Online Degrees in Computer Sciences
  312. Breaking the Computer Buying Cycle
  313. The Best Computer Equipment for Day Trading E-Mini Futures
  314. What Does Office 2016 Mean to a Small to Medium Business?
  315. 5 High Demand Technology Skills for 2016
  316. 10 Health Problems Caused by Computer Use and How to Win Them
  317. 4 Content Marketing Mistakes You Should Avoid in 2016
  318. Content Marketing Trends In 2016
  319. Driving Free Website Traffic in 2016
  320. 5 Tips To Do Social Media Marketing In 2016
  321. Working With Fashion Bloggers for Product Promotion and Purchasing Decisions Is Smart
  322. The Spectrum of Death: Perspective on News Coverage
  323. Book Trailers: Compiling & Arranging Elements for Effective Results
  324. Japanese Guys Think Europeans Girls Are Not Into Them – They Are So Wrong!
  325. How to Prevent Pre-Diabetes From Getting Worse
  326. Top three Books for Inspiration on How To Work Smarter, Not Harder
  327. The Walrus and the Honeybee: Remembering Buckfast
  328. Bloggers’ Parties For Product Promotion
  329. Blogger Tricks – Simple Blogger Tricks And Tips For New Bloggers
  330. How a blogger went from sharing stock picks to building his own version of the hottest investment product around
  331. Nigerian blogger detained for criticising governor in prison 10 days after
  332. Why a massive DDoS attack on a blogger has internet experts worried
  333. Saudi Arabian teen arrested for online videos with American blogger
  334. Should Australians Still Invest Properties in the United States?
  335. Financial Modeling: Investment Property Model
  336. What Constitutes Separate Property in Virginia?
  337. How to Rent My Property
  338. 5 Reasons Why Investing in Property in Hull Will Create Wealth
  339. Yours, Mine and Ours: How Spouses Share and Transfer Property
  340. Ten Tips for Comparing Health Care Policies
  341. Beauty Spells Really Make You Beautiful
  342. Patient Abandonment – Home Health Care
  343. What is Taught in Beauty Schools?
  344. The Simulation Hypothesis: Even More Evidence From Physics
  345. How To Make Money Online Today – The Basic Process
  346. Career Change At 50 – Start Working From Home
  347. Even More Religious Shorts
  348. Sample Counseling Statement, IRR Transfer
  349. Writing Website Content – Who Are You Writing To?
  350. 12 Great Reasons To Have A Niche Website
  351. Why Your Metabolic Age Matters
  352. Alternative Sources of Business Growth Finance
  353. Best in Class Finance Functions
  354. What You Should Know About Dealer Finance
  355. Safe Driving Through Mexico’s Yucatan From Oaxaca: Archaeology Agave Crafts Wildlife Nature & More
  356. Boosting Your Audience Engagement to the Max
  357. Revenue-Based Financing for Technology Companies With No Hard Assets
  358. The New Rule For Buying a Home – Using Owner Financing
  359. Learning a Language In the Throes of the Perfectionist Syndrome
  360. Accounts Receivable Financing – Don’t Worry, Be Happy
  361. What Does the Bible Say About Beauty?
  362. Where within the World Is Your Finance Penetration?
  363. The Best Car Deals – Low Finance Rates Vs Rebates – Which Should You Choose?
  364. Real True Beauty
  365. What the Heck is Owner Financing?
  366. Finance, Credit, Investments
  367. Debunking 3 Common WordPress Myths
  368. WordPress Banned The Website Of The Fascist Group Linked To The Alleged Charlottesville Killer
  369. WordPress Migrations Made Easy
  370. Comparison Between Open Source CMS Systems and Commercial Open Source Systems
  371. Inner Beauty – Beauty Goes Beyond What the Eye Can See
  372. Simple Homemade Beauty Tips To Implement For Natural Beauty
  373. Beauty – An Essential Ingredient For Choosing A Spouse
  374. What Does Really Beauty Means?
  375. How to Feel Beautiful: Feel Beautiful and Celebrate Ourselves
  376. What Do I Do: WordPress or HTML?
  377. Taking Your WordPress Website To The Next Level
  378. How to Use Cpanel
  379. Benefits of College Education
  380. Basic Building Block of Starting a Profitable Blog
  381. Why is Education So Important? Something We Don’t Think of But Should
  382. Real Beauty – Bliss!
  383. The Real Reasons for Society’s Immense Influence on Education
  384. Your Network Marketing Business Blog – 5 Good Reasons To Use WordPress
  385. WordPress search engine marketing
  386. The Numerous and Useful Advantages of the Internet in Education
  387. Unexpectedly Brilliant Uses of Computers in Education
  388. Beliefs About the Purpose of Education You Probably Didn’t Know
  389. Oldest University within the World
  390. GRE Scores Scale
  391. Outlining the Difference Between a College And a University
  392. Ethical Issues in Education We Can’t Afford to Ignore
  393. A Beginner’s Guide To Setting Up A Successful Online Store
  394. The Nikon D3400 Picture Controls and Effects – How to Use Them on the Nikon D3400 DSLR Camera
  395. Retail Design for Vehicle Showrooms
  396. How to Secure Your Small Business with a PIX Firewall
  397. The Due Diligence Concept: A Six Month Journey To High Rankings On The Internet
  398. Perception: Learned Or Innate? A Debate
  399. Best Practices for 21st Century Boards
  400. Why Boko Haram Became Violent
  401. Should You Use Revit Server or Collaboration For Revit (C4R)?
  402. Managing Fixed Asset As a Corporate Financial Strategy – The Accountants’ Perspective
  403. Beauty – Is It Physical Appearances or Self-Esteem?
  404. The 10+1 Paths To Vibrant Healthy Skin At Any Age – How To Make 2013 Your Best Year For Beauty Ever
  405. How Does a Whole Life Insurance Policy Work?
  406. What is Permanent Life Insurance? Should I Choose Permanent Life Insurance Or Term Life Insurance?
  407. I Danced With Christ In Bali
  408. Five Positive Tips for Baby Boomers: Retirement & Panic
  409. Hurricane Erma A Floridian’s Story
  410. The Hidden Hazards of Digital Devices and Blue Light on Kid’s Eyes.
  411. Teaching Data Entry to New Hires
  412. Trauma Aftershocks
  413. I Still Haven’t Started With Live Trading Yet, Because I Am Afraid to “Click”
  414. E-Commerce: B2B Vs B2C
  415. The Simulation Hypothesis: Evidence From Physics
  416. The Best Consumer Electonics Reviews and Deals
  417. Reasons to Not Have a Cellphone
  418. Top Ten PC Games In The World
  419. Video Games and the Law: Sex, Violence and Addiction
  420. Tichu Card Game Review
  421. Should Students Learn A Musical Instrument Or Play Educational Video Games?
  422. Game Ideation For The Everyman
  423. MMO Games for Kids and Teens – Harmless Fun?
  424. What It’s Like Being a Game Maker
  425. Family Gaming – 10 Best Xbox 360 Family Games
  426. Top 10 Cool Online Physics Games

1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

2. Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions, international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education e.g. traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.

5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.

The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.

The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.

6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories
The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.

The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.

The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have “local seeds” to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some “local seeds” that may be to exist local demands and values to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.

The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.

The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.

The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.

The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.

Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)

7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on “Ujamaa” (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the “Ujamaa” ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society cannot segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.

7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education (FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.

7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching/learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.

The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).

7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.

7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.

7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania’s education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross/net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960’s and early 1970s’, grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (ibid)

7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input/output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency/mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.

7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).

8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.

Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007)

This is a Sidebar position. Add your widgets in this position using Default Sidebar or a custom sidebar.