1. What the Experts Are Saying About Moved Store Bought and What It Means For You
  2. What Business Goals Onpage Is – and What it Is Not
  3. Buyer Beware – A Guide to Buying Classic Video Games on eBay
  4. How To Wisely Buy A New Computer
  5. Beginner’s Guide to Computer Forensics
  6. Breaking the Computer Buying
  7. Computer Knowledge (Literacy)
  8. Evolution of Technology – The History of Computers
  9. Crunch Power And The Simulation Hypothesis
  10. Computer or Buy a New One?
  11. Online Computer Repair and Remote Virus Removal
  12. Are We Too Dependent on Computers?
  13. Cloud Computing – Is It Safe?
  14. Thirteen Steps to Successful Blogging
  15. 12 Things You Need to Know Before You Even Start a Blog
  16. Why I Love Blogging
  17. 7 Best Blogging Platforms to Start a Blog for Free
  18. 15 Reasons Why You Should Start a Blog Today
  19. Why You Should Blog To Make Money Online
  20. A Blog Marketing Plan – The Basics
  21. Why Most Bloggers Never See Their Blogs As a Business
  22. Use Blogging for Profit
  23. Five Smart Ways To Make Big Money From Blogging
  24. Arkansas Life Insurance Guide – How to Find Cheap Arkansas Term Life Insurance Rates
  25. Life Insurance Settlements Viewed Through the Eye of the NASD – A Study in Compliance
  26. It’s Ok to Say No to Technology for Your Kids and Why I Didn’t
  27. Tips to Secure Your Small Business Network
  28. New Business Startup Checklist
  29. Book Ghostwriter on Google
  30. 5 Steps on How to Start Affiliate Marketing for Beginners
  31. Shhh – Not In Front Of The Television
  32. What Every Investor Should Know About Options!
  33. Review: My Year With Microsoft Surface Pro
  34. Android 6.Zero Marshmallow: What’s on the Cards?
  35. Life Coaching – Past, Present, and Future
  36. Why Hire a Life Coach?
  37. The Condition For Man To Have Eternal Life
  38. Past Life – Wanting to Know Who I Was in My Past-Life
  39. Dividend Paying Whole Life Insurance – Understanding What Sets it Apart
  40. Step Up to a Better Life With the Help of a Good Coach
  41. 10 SEO Tips to Get Your WordPress Blog Ranking Highly in the Search Engines
  42. 4 Quick SEO Tips To Help You Make More Money From Home
  43. SEO Tips on Hiring an SEO Expert
  44. 9 Blog SEO Tips to Assist Your Blog Rankings
  45. Five SEO Tips: You Should Know
  46. Satellite Internet Access – No DSL Or Cable – No Problem
  47. Three Exchange Traded Funds to Invest in the Internet
  48. Large Companies Need Internet T3 Line
  49. Web Internet Marketing, Increase Income By Improving Sales Process In Any Business On The Internet
  50. The Key Role of InThe Key Role of Internet Service Providers To Their Subscribersternet Service Providers To Their Subscribers
  51. Satellite Internet: Getting Things Done Faster
  52. Learn More About Computer Internet Cable
  53. Wireless Internet for Laptops: The Norm Today
  54. Greater Opportunities for the Finer Salt Cave Here
  55. Internet Business Is a Pretty Big Place
  56. Should I Use The Internet for My Network Marketing Business?
  57. How Does Wireless Internet Work – Four Ways to Establish Wireless Connection to the Internet
  58. Speed Up Internet Windows 7
  59. Top Rural Area High Speed Internet Providers
  60. What Does Internet-Enabled Mean To The Average Construction Professional?What Does Internet-Enabled Mean To The Average Construction Professional?
  61. Back To School Internet Safety Tips For Parents
  62. 5 Great Uses of the Internet
  63. Comcast Internet Essentials Program – A Possible Solution To Help Bridge The US Digital Divide
  64. Kids Safety On The Internet – The Technology Blame Game?
  65. Internet Marketing Pt 1
  66. The Internet in Our Future
  67. What Is Broadband Internet? My Options
  68. How to Choose Your Internet Download Speed?
  69. Tips to Keep in Mind While Going for Internet Service
  70. What Can Broadband Internet Do For Me?
  71. The Growth of the Internet Economy
  72. What Are The Advantages Of Satellite Internet Over DSL Internet?
  73. The Most Interesting Facts About Broadband Internet
  74. Is a Wireless Internet Connection Right For You?
  75. Advantages of Getting Internet Connection From Broadband Internet Service Providers
  76. The Primary Duty of the Intermediary in Internet Oil Trading and Refined Petroleum Product Deals
  77. How Internet Brokers and Agents Kill Petroleum Deals and Oil Deals As Intermediaries in Trading
  78. Helpful Tips In Saving From Costs Of High Speed Internet
  79. 50 Amazing Facts About the Internet
  80. The Power of Internet: It’s Like a Magic!
  81. The Truth About Internet Money
  82. Effects of Internet in Today’s Lifestyles
  83. Selecting the Best Type of Internet Service Provider for Your Needs
  84. Boosting Internet Access Resilience, ISP Multihoming Explained
  85. How the Internet Is Structured
  86. Where Internet Jurisdiction Can Get Your Business Sued!
  87. Important Information About The Internet And Computers
  88. Rural Wireless Broadband Internet – How Does It Work And How Can I Get It?
  89. Flattening The American Internet
  90. Purchase Order Financing Tips and Secrets for Canadian Firms Seeking Trade Finance
  91. 7 Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Palm Springs
  92. Are Inventory Financing Lenders and P O Factoring Solutions Your Best Business Financing Bet?
  93. Who’s Financing Inventory and Using Purchase Order Finance (P O Finance)? Your Competitors!
  94. Alternative Financing for Wholesale Produce Distributors
  95. Sources of Business Finance
  96. Alternative Sources of Business Growth Finance: There Is More Than One Way to Fund Growth
  97. Car Finance – What You Should Know About Dealer Finance
  98. Alternative Financing Vs. Venture Capital: Which Option Is Best for Boosting Working Capital?
  99. Best in Class Finance Functions For Police Forces
  100. Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories
  101. Immortalizing Values Through Education for Sustainable Development
  102. Italy bridge: State of emergency follows Genoa catastrophe
  103. New Zealand bans sales of houses to foreigners
  104. Mystery Russian satellite’s behaviour increases alarm in US
  105. Face transplant: A ‘second risk’ for young suicide survivor
  106. Stocks in the news: Kotak Mahindra Bank, ONGC, Fortis Health, Khadim, UPL, Hathway Cable, MMTC
  107. Teacher Education and Teacher Quality
  108. Making Online Education Attractive
  109. Education Loans Can Augment The Boundaries Of What You Can Achieve
  110. Improving the Quality of Education: A 360 Degree Perspective on Education CSR in India
  111. Educational Problem Solving
  112. An Inside Look at the Special Education Profession
  113. 5 Best Layered Inverted Bob Haircuts You Should Try | Glaminati.Com
  114. Technology’s Effect on Commercial Real Estate in a Recession
  115. Trends in Technology
  116. Monitor Technology Explained
  117. Pros And Cons Of Online Education For The World Citizen
  118. Technology and Innovation Management
  119. Impact Of Technology In Banking
  120. Technology – Who Needs It?
  121. Implementing New Technology
  122. Automotive Advertising Agencies Must Use Yesterday’s Knowledge & Tomorrow’s Technology to Survive
  123. Cool Gadgets Shopper – Irresistible Gadgets Your Customers Will Love
  124. Do What You Do Best – Realistic Technology Tips For Paralegals
  125. Top 5 Twisted, Yet Fun Games of All Time
  126. Difference Between On-Campus Education and Online Education
  127. Electronics Gadgets Selling Tutorial: 15+ Wee Devices That Will Make Your Store a Big Hit On The Net
  128. Electronic Gadgets Sales For Morons: Ten+ Devices You Can Wear
  129. Self-Defense Gadgets And Gizmo’s – Should You Carry A Personal Safety Weapon?
  130. The Many Gadgets Available To Compliment Both Him And Her
  131. Kitchen Equipment And Gadgets For Your Raw Food Kitchen
  132. Buying a Clinical Information Technology System
  133. Cool Gadgets Shopper – Why You Need A Laser Light
  134. The Newest Home Electronics and the Latest Travel Gadgets
  135. Spy Gadgets Hints: Where to Use 17 Different Camouflaged Cameras
  136. Selling Automobile Dealerships to Public Companies – Effect of Framework Agreements
  137. Interview with Dr Renato C Nicolai, Author of “The Nightmare That Is Public Education”
  138. Millennium Education Development – Ways To Achieve
  139. Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And ChallengesGlobalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges
  140. Keep Your PC Healthy With Computer Tips & Tricks
  141. Use This Simple Computer Tip to Save Time Using the Internet
  142. 5 Stress Reducing Computer Tips
  143. Computer Tips From My Journal
  144. Speed Up Computer Tips
  145. Best Computer Tips to Help With Slowing Computer Problems
  146. Essential Computer Tips You Should Learn Right Now
  147. Home Computing Tips for Getting More From Your Technology
  148. Computer Tips that Help Small Businesses Operate Profitably
  149. Computer Tips – Some Useful Computer Tips For Average Computer User
  150. Spyware – Now a Problem for Mac Users as Well
  151. 15 Alluring Stacked Bob Haircuts to Brighten Your Day| Lovehairstyles.com
  152. The Non-Hostile Overview Of Choosing A PC Or Mac For Your Computing Needs
  153. What Went Wrong? When Relationships Go From Hot To Cold
  154. Malware on the Mac – Viruses, Spyware, Worms, and Other Digital Nasties Are Coming to the Mac
  155. How to Run Windows on a Mac
  156. Fixing a Slow Mac: Discover The Ultimate Solution
  157. Advantages and Features of Mac Computers
  158. Switching From PC to Mac
  159. Mac Mini User Guide
  160. The Short Awkward Life of Mac Remora
  161. Mac Media Center
  162. Software As a Service (SaaS) Software on Demand – Using SaaS the Smart Way
  163. 10 Ways Baby Boomers Can Be Happier in 2018
  164. Predictive Dialer Software – Functions, Benefits and Features of This Tool
  165. Do You Have What It Takes?
  166. Is Technology a Bringer of Great Promise or Great Peril?
  167. What to Look for When Hiring an HVAC Professional
  168. Four Steps To Become Successful With Affiliate Marketing
  169. Eleven Minimalist Mindset Tips
  170. Miracles, The Power of the Web, Selfless Love and Acts of Kindness
  171. Top 10 Causes of Online Marketing Burnout
  172. Welfare of the Internet of Things
  173. Operational Route Accounting ERP Software: Benefits and Obstacles
  174. 3 Benefits to Using Cloud Yoga Business Software for Your Yoga Studio
  175. Software Engineering and the Intelligence Community – Setting Real Time Standards
  176. Importance of Software Testing in the IT Industry
  177. Death of an Automobile Dealership
  178. Electronics Gadgets – 13-Plus Disclaimers and Disclaimer Templates to Keep You Out of Trouble
  179. Automobile Accidents Are Easy to Prevent Using Modern Technology
  180. Compensation Caused via Automobile Accidents
  181. Site Control For Automobile Dealerships in the 21st Century
  182. The Automobile: Profit and Status, Waste and Pollution
  183. A Subjective Insight of the Future Automobile
  184. How to Save on Automobile Insurance
  185. Forty Years of Sheer Galveston Fascination
  186. Visit the Beautiful Places in Darjeeling, the Queen of the Himalayas
  187. Rhode Island Personal Injury Law FAQS and Automobile – Car Accidents – through a RI Lawyer – Attorney
  188. Buying and Selling Automobile Dealerships – Limitations When Negotiating the Contract
  189. Confused With All the Travel Information at the Internet?
  190. Friendly Places to Travel With Grand Children
  191. I’m Going to Cuba – And Other Adventures!
  192. The Trek to Upper Mustang – The Forbidden Kingdom
  193. Tazaungmon And The Tazaungdaing Light Festival
  194. Explore Antigua
  195. Cuba: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
  196. The South Shore Pub Tour Along Nova Scotia’s Fabulous South Shore Lighthouse Route
  197. How to Get Started With Sports Betting
  198. The National Service Factor in Sports Development
  199. Title IX – Sports
  200. A Brief Theology of Sports
  201. Youth Sports – The Role of Organized Sports in Your Child’s Life
  202. Sport and the Russian Revolution
  203. Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management
  204. Which Software Testing Company?
  205. Accounting and Payroll Software – Industry Jargon Defined
  206. The Case for Flag Football As an Olympic Sport
  207. Peak Performance in Sports
  208. Sports Betting Champ, John Morrison Sports Betting Product Review!
  209. What Is iCloud, and Do I Need It?
  210. Is the iPhone 4S a Huge Waste of Money? Find Out Why You Should Keep Your iPhone four and Not Upgrade
  211. Should I Upgrade My iPad? What’s Inside Does Not Matter That Much
  212. How Is Apples IOS 6 Passbook App Going to Change the Electronic Wallet World?
  213. Ultima Forever: Quest for the Avatar iOS (Pre) Review
  214. Five Yes’ to the iPhone 5S!
  215. Areas That iPhone 4 Still Crumble to Android
  216. New Mobile Applications Stock Market
  217. ICloud – The Essential Guide
  218. An Introduction to Mobile Applications
  219. Apple’s IOS Vs Google’s Android OS Vs Blackberry’s Rim Vs Microsoft’s Windows Mobile
  220. Finding The Best Small Business Scheduling Software
  221. The Top Facebook Games of 2010
  222. Most Anticipated Video Games of 2010
  223. Different Types of Card Games
  224. Apple iOS five.0 Features: Notifications, iMessages and All Other Goodies You Need to Know
  225. 10 Ways to Market Your Mobile App
  226. Mobile Application Development – Current Technologies
  227. Understanding Mobile Phones
  228. Rapid Web-Based Desktop And Mobile Application Development
  229. Introduction to Designing Open Source Games for the Google Smart Phones
  230. History of Video Games – The First Video Game Ever Made?
  231. Mobile Sales Force Automation – How businesses doubled its income quantity with wi-fi technologies
  232. The Mobile Landscape – The Truth Behind the Hype
  233. Everything About Mobile Apps That You Want to Know!
  234. Considerations When Creating A Mobility Extension To The Corporate Network
  235. Tablet Wars! VHS or Betamax? Android, Apple, or Playbook?
  236. How to Select the Best Android Tablet
  237. Purchasing a Top Android Phone is a Good Decision
  238. An Introduction to Forensics Data Acquisition From Android Mobile Devices
  239. Comparing the Widows Mobile and Android Develpment Platform
  240. Every Man Is An Island: The Fragmentation of Android
  241. Google’s Android Phones Challenge Apple iPhone For Smartphone Market Share
  242. Android User Security
  243. 10 Free Android Apps That Will Actually Make You Money While Shopping!
  244. How to Pick Video Games Both Parents and Their Kids Will Love
  245. Exercise for the Brain
  246. How Prefabrication Is Helping the Hospitality Sector
  247. IPhone Vs Android Battle Royale
  248. Eight Ways To Awaken Your Greatness And Affirm Your True Power
  249. Why You’re So Damn Ugly And How To Become Beautiful Or Handsome
  250. The Power Of Awareness: How To Cultivate Mindfulness In Your Everyday Life
  251. IRR Transfer for Dependency or Hardship
  252. The Cure To Loneliness
  253. Top Ways to Prevent Data Loss
  254. Five Ways to Build Enterprise Mobile Apps “The Right Way”
  255. 6 Website Must-Have’s for Small Businesses
  256. Top 5 Most Important Aspects of Your Game
  257. How To Not Fail With Your New Year’s Resolutions
  258. Extreme Celestial Magnifying Glass Detects Dim Galaxies In The Primeval Universe
  259. How to Worship God According to Jesus
  260. Particles Born In A Black Hole’s Hostile Winds
  261. Hot Jupiter Planets: Any Way The Wind Blows
  262. Project-Based Teaching Methods
  263. Can Chia Seeds Reverse Diabetes?
  264. Mezcal in Oaxaca: State, National and Global Significance of Mexico’s Iconic Spirit
  265. The Magic Power of Perception
  266. Seven Chakras and Seven Colors Interconnected
  267. How to Control Stress Eating
  268. Killer Foods
  269. Stop Body Hate: Seven Mindset Qualities to Love Your Body
  270. What Is Calcium And What Does It Do?
  271. Calcium Needs At All Life Stages
  272. How to Achieve Health and Fitness
  273. 7 Main Reasons to Drink More Water
  274. 15 Amazing Healthcare Technology Innovations
  275. Earth’s Moon Has A Soggy Secret
  276. Messages From the Grave – Hit Over the Head With a Double Boiler
  277. Poetry and the Muses
  278. Cancer Antidote three-D
  279. A Fond Farewell To A Misty Moon
  280. What Makes a Good Game, and Where Will it Lead Us From Here?
  281. Not Even Jealousy Can Stop God
  282. The Mysterious Magnetic Personality Of Our Star
  283. Some Anti-Theist Religious Bits & Pieces: Round Sixteen
  284. Your Thoughts Determine Your Life
  285. What Are the Causes of PMS?
  286. 20 Exhilarating Destinations To Explore In India With Your Girl-Gang
  287. Psychology in China – Fairy Tales For Therapy
  288. 9 Tested search engine marketing Tips
  289. A Shaman Shares Knowledge
  290. Online Dating one hundred and one – Online Dating Basics
  291. Top 10 Doris Day Movies
  292. Creating A Life You Love
  293. How to Clean-up Your Allergies with 2 Easy Home Tips
  294. Vanity Killed My Car
  295. SEO Tips for Lawyers – Five Crucial Keys to Organic Search Engine Optimization
  296. 10 search engine marketing Tips to Be #1 on Search Engines
  297. Top five SEO Tips For WordPress
  298. How To Make More Money
  299. 25 search engine marketing Tips for Visitors and Search Engines Using Newswire Techniques
  300. The Growing Popularity of Free & Casual Games
  301. Top 10 SEO Tips That Will Get Your Site Ranked Higher in Google
  302. 6 search engine optimization Tips for Better Search Engine Rankings
  303. Five Ways To Make Money With Your Website
  304. Importance of Social Proof for the Hospitality Industry
  305. Five Important On Page search engine marketing Tips
  306. An Ounce of Prevention – 16 search engine marketing Tips
  307. 38+ Quick SEO Tips for E-Commerce Websites
  308. Avoiding Website Headaches
  309. RIP-OFFS: Online Computer Repair and Remote Virus Removal
  310. Should I Fix My Computer or Buy a New One?
  311. Computing Crunch Power And The Simulation Hypothesis
  312. The Evolution of Technology – The History of Computers
  313. Scope of Online Degrees in Computer Sciences
  314. Breaking the Computer Buying Cycle
  315. The Best Computer Equipment for Day Trading E-Mini Futures
  316. What Does Office 2016 Mean to a Small to Medium Business?
  317. 5 High Demand Technology Skills for 2016
  318. 10 Health Problems Caused by Computer Use and How to Win Them
  319. 4 Content Marketing Mistakes You Should Avoid in 2016
  320. Content Marketing Trends In 2016
  321. Driving Free Website Traffic in 2016
  322. 5 Tips To Do Social Media Marketing In 2016
  323. Working With Fashion Bloggers for Product Promotion and Purchasing Decisions Is Smart
  324. The Spectrum of Death: Perspective on News Coverage
  325. Book Trailers: Compiling & Arranging Elements for Effective Results
  326. Japanese Guys Think Europeans Girls Are Not Into Them – They Are So Wrong!
  327. How to Prevent Pre-Diabetes From Getting Worse
  328. Top three Books for Inspiration on How To Work Smarter, Not Harder
  329. The Walrus and the Honeybee: Remembering Buckfast
  330. Bloggers’ Parties For Product Promotion
  331. Blogger Tricks – Simple Blogger Tricks And Tips For New Bloggers
  332. How a blogger went from sharing stock picks to building his own version of the hottest investment product around
  333. Nigerian blogger detained for criticising governor in prison 10 days after
  334. Why a massive DDoS attack on a blogger has internet experts worried
  335. Saudi Arabian teen arrested for online videos with American blogger
  336. Should Australians Still Invest Properties in the United States?
  337. Financial Modeling: Investment Property Model
  338. What Constitutes Separate Property in Virginia?
  339. How to Rent My Property
  340. 5 Reasons Why Investing in Property in Hull Will Create Wealth
  341. Yours, Mine and Ours: How Spouses Share and Transfer Property
  342. Ten Tips for Comparing Health Care Policies
  343. Beauty Spells Really Make You Beautiful
  344. Patient Abandonment – Home Health Care
  345. What is Taught in Beauty Schools?
  346. The Simulation Hypothesis: Even More Evidence From Physics
  347. How To Make Money Online Today – The Basic Process
  348. Career Change At 50 – Start Working From Home
  349. Even More Religious Shorts
  350. Sample Counseling Statement, IRR Transfer
  351. Writing Website Content – Who Are You Writing To?
  352. 12 Great Reasons To Have A Niche Website
  353. Why Your Metabolic Age Matters
  354. Alternative Sources of Business Growth Finance
  355. Best in Class Finance Functions
  356. What You Should Know About Dealer Finance
  357. Safe Driving Through Mexico’s Yucatan From Oaxaca: Archaeology Agave Crafts Wildlife Nature & More
  358. Boosting Your Audience Engagement to the Max
  359. Revenue-Based Financing for Technology Companies With No Hard Assets
  360. The New Rule For Buying a Home – Using Owner Financing
  361. Learning a Language In the Throes of the Perfectionist Syndrome
  362. Accounts Receivable Financing – Don’t Worry, Be Happy
  363. What Does the Bible Say About Beauty?
  364. Where within the World Is Your Finance Penetration?
  365. The Best Car Deals – Low Finance Rates Vs Rebates – Which Should You Choose?
  366. Real True Beauty
  367. What the Heck is Owner Financing?
  368. Finance, Credit, Investments
  369. Debunking 3 Common WordPress Myths
  370. WordPress Banned The Website Of The Fascist Group Linked To The Alleged Charlottesville Killer
  371. WordPress Migrations Made Easy
  372. Comparison Between Open Source CMS Systems and Commercial Open Source Systems
  373. Inner Beauty – Beauty Goes Beyond What the Eye Can See
  374. Simple Homemade Beauty Tips To Implement For Natural Beauty
  375. Beauty – An Essential Ingredient For Choosing A Spouse
  376. What Does Really Beauty Means?
  377. How to Feel Beautiful: Feel Beautiful and Celebrate Ourselves
  378. What Do I Do: WordPress or HTML?
  379. Taking Your WordPress Website To The Next Level
  380. How to Use Cpanel
  381. Benefits of College Education
  382. Basic Building Block of Starting a Profitable Blog
  383. Why is Education So Important? Something We Don’t Think of But Should
  384. Real Beauty – Bliss!
  385. The Real Reasons for Society’s Immense Influence on Education
  386. Your Network Marketing Business Blog – 5 Good Reasons To Use WordPress
  387. WordPress search engine marketing
  388. The Numerous and Useful Advantages of the Internet in Education
  389. Unexpectedly Brilliant Uses of Computers in Education
  390. Beliefs About the Purpose of Education You Probably Didn’t Know
  391. Oldest University within the World
  392. GRE Scores Scale
  393. Outlining the Difference Between a College And a University
  394. Ethical Issues in Education We Can’t Afford to Ignore
  395. A Beginner’s Guide To Setting Up A Successful Online Store
  396. The Nikon D3400 Picture Controls and Effects – How to Use Them on the Nikon D3400 DSLR Camera
  397. Retail Design for Vehicle Showrooms
  398. How to Secure Your Small Business with a PIX Firewall
  399. The Due Diligence Concept: A Six Month Journey To High Rankings On The Internet
  400. Perception: Learned Or Innate? A Debate
  401. Best Practices for 21st Century Boards
  402. Why Boko Haram Became Violent
  403. Should You Use Revit Server or Collaboration For Revit (C4R)?
  404. Managing Fixed Asset As a Corporate Financial Strategy – The Accountants’ Perspective
  405. Beauty – Is It Physical Appearances or Self-Esteem?
  406. The 10+1 Paths To Vibrant Healthy Skin At Any Age – How To Make 2013 Your Best Year For Beauty Ever
  407. How Does a Whole Life Insurance Policy Work?
  408. What is Permanent Life Insurance? Should I Choose Permanent Life Insurance Or Term Life Insurance?
  409. I Danced With Christ In Bali
  410. Five Positive Tips for Baby Boomers: Retirement & Panic
  411. Hurricane Erma A Floridian’s Story
  412. The Hidden Hazards of Digital Devices and Blue Light on Kid’s Eyes.
  413. Teaching Data Entry to New Hires
  414. Trauma Aftershocks
  415. I Still Haven’t Started With Live Trading Yet, Because I Am Afraid to “Click”
  416. E-Commerce: B2B Vs B2C
  417. The Simulation Hypothesis: Evidence From Physics
  418. The Best Consumer Electonics Reviews and Deals
  419. Reasons to Not Have a Cellphone
  420. Top Ten PC Games In The World
  421. Video Games and the Law: Sex, Violence and Addiction
  422. Tichu Card Game Review
  423. Should Students Learn A Musical Instrument Or Play Educational Video Games?
  424. Game Ideation For The Everyman
  425. MMO Games for Kids and Teens – Harmless Fun?
  426. What It’s Like Being a Game Maker
  427. Family Gaming – 10 Best Xbox 360 Family Games
  428. Top 10 Cool Online Physics Games

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the sectors which fosters national development is education by ensuring the development of a functional human resource. The institution of strong educational structures leads to a society populated by enlightened people, who can cause positive economic progress and social transformation. A Positive social transformation and its associated economic growth are achieved as the people apply the skills they learned while they were in school. The acquisition of these skills is facilitated by one individual we all ‘teacher’. For this reason, nations seeking economic and social developments need not ignore teachers and their role in national development.

Teachers are the major factor that drives students’ achievements in learning. The performance of teachers generally determines, not only, the quality of education, but the general performance of the students they train. The teachers themselves therefore ought to get the best of education, so they can in turn help train students in the best of ways. It is known, that the quality of teachers and quality teaching are some of the most important factors that shape the learning and social and academic growth of students. Quality training will ensure, to a large extent, teachers are of very high quality, so as to be able to properly manage classrooms and facilitate learning. That is why teacher quality is still a matter of concern, even, in countries where students consistently obtain high scores in international exams, such as Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In such countries, teacher education of prime importance because of the potential it has to cause positive students’ achievements.

The structure of teacher education keeps changing in almost all countries in response to the quest of producing teachers who understand the current needs of students or just the demand for teachers. The changes are attempts to ensure that quality teachers are produced and sometimes just to ensure that classrooms are not free of teachers. In the U.S.A, how to promote high quality teachers has been an issue of contention and, for the past decade or so, has been motivated, basically, through the methods prescribed by the No Child Left Behind Act (Accomplished California Teachers, 2015). Even in Japan and other Eastern countries where there are more teachers than needed, and structures have been instituted to ensure high quality teachers are produced and employed, issues relating to the teacher and teaching quality are still of concern (Ogawa, Fujii & Ikuo, 2013). Teacher education is therefore no joke anywhere. This article is in two parts. It first discusses Ghana’s teacher education system and in the second part looks at some determinants of quality teaching Do Enjoy Life.

2.0 TEACHER EDUCATION

Ghana has been making deliberate attempts to produce quality teachers for her basic school classrooms. As Benneh (2006) indicated, Ghana’s aim of teacher education is to provide a complete teacher education program through the provision of initial teacher training and in-service training programs, that will produce competent teachers, who will help improve the effectiveness of the teaching and learning that goes on in schools. The Initial teacher education program for Ghana’s basic school teachers was offered in Colleges of Education (CoE) only, until quite recently when, University of Education, University of Cape Coast, Central University College and other tertiary institutions joined in. The most striking difference between the programs offered by the other tertiary institution is that while the Universities teach, examine and award certificates to their students, the Colleges of Education offer tuition while the University of Cape Coast, through the Institute of Education, examines and award certificates. The training programs offered by these institutions are attempts at providing many qualified teachers to teach in the schools. The National Accreditation Board accredits teacher training programs in order to ensure quality.

The National Accreditation Board accredits teacher education programs based on the structure and content of the courses proposed by the institution. Hence, the courses run by various institutions differ in content and structure. For example, the course content for the Institute of Education, University of Cape Coast is slightly different from the course structure and content of the Center for Continue Education, University of Cape Coast and none of these two programs matches that of the CoEs, though they all award Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) after three years of training. The DBE and the Four-year Untrained Teacher’s Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) programs run by the CoEs are only similar, but not the same. The same can be said of the Two-year Post-Diploma in Basic Education, Four-year Bachelor’s degree programs run by the University of Cape Coast, the University of Education, Winneba and the other Universities and University Colleges. In effect even though, same products attract same clients, the preparation of the products are done in different ways.

It is through these many programs that teachers are prepared for the basic schools – from nursery to senior high schools. Alternative pathways, or programs through which teachers are prepared are seen to be good in situations where there are shortages of teachers and more teachers ought to be trained within a very short time. A typical example is the UTDBE program, mentioned above, which design to equip non-professional teachers with professional skills. But this attempt to produce more teachers, because of shortage of teachers, has the tendency of comprising quality.

As noted by Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci and Stone (2010) the factors that contribute to the problems of teacher education and teacher retention are varied and complex, but one factor that teacher educators are concerned about is the alternative pathways through which teacher education occur. The prime aim of many of the pathways is to fast track teachers into the teaching profession. This short-changed the necessary teacher preparation that prospective teachers need before becoming classroom teachers. Those who favor alternative routes, like Teach for America (TFA), according to Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci and Stone (2010) have defended their alternative pathways by saying that even though the students are engaged in a short-period of pre-service training, the students are academically brilliant and so have the capacity to learn a lot in a short period. Others argue that in subjects like English, Science and mathematics where there are usually shortages of teachers, there must be a deliberate opening up of alternative pathways to good candidates who had done English, Mathematics and Science courses at the undergraduate level. None of these arguments in support of alternative pathways, hold for the alternative teacher education programs in Ghana, where the academically brilliant students shun teaching due to reasons I shall come to.

When the target is just to fill vacant classrooms, issues of quality teacher preparation is relegated to the background, somehow. Right at the selection stage, the alternative pathways ease the requirement for gaining entry into teacher education programs. When, for example, the second batch of UTDBE students were admitted, I can say with confidence that entry requirements into the CoEs were not adhered to. What was emphasized was that, the applicant must be a non-professional basic school teacher who has been engaged by the Ghana Education Service, and that the applicant holds a certificate above Basic Education Certificate Examination. The grades obtained did not matter. If this pathway had not been created, the CoEs would not have trained students who initially did not qualify to enroll in the regular DBE program. However, it leaves in its trail the debilitating effect compromised quality.

Even with regular DBE programs, I have realized, just recently I must say, that CoEs in, particular, are not attracting the candidates with very high grades. This as I have learnt now has a huge influence on both teacher quality and teacher effectiveness. The fact is, teacher education programs in Ghana are not regarded as prestigious programs and so applicants with high grades do not opt for education programs. And so the majority of applicants who apply for teacher education programs have, relatively, lower grades. When the entry requirement for CoEs’ DBE program for 2016/2017 academic year was published, I noticed the minimum entry grades had been dropped from C6 to D8 for West African Senior Secondary School Examination candidates. This drop in standard could only be attributed to CoEs’ attempt to attract more applicants. The universities too, lower their cut off point for education programs so as attract more candidates. The universities as alleged by Levine (2006) see their teacher education programs, so to say, as cash cows. Their desire to make money, force them to lower admission standards, like the CoEs have done, in order to increase their enrollments. The fact that, admission standards are internationally lowered in order to achieve a goal of increasing numbers. This weak recruitment practice or lowering of standards introduce a serious challenge to teacher education.

The Japanese have been able to make teacher education and teaching prestigious and therefor attract students with high grades. One may argue that in Japan, the supply of teachers far exceeds the demand and so authorities are not under any pressure to hire teachers. Their system won’t suffer if they do all they can to select higher grade student into teacher education programs. To them, the issues relating to the selection of teachers are more important that the issues relating to recruitment. However, in western and African countries the issues relating to recruitment are prime. It is so because the demand for teachers far outweighs that of supply. Western and African countries have difficulties recruiting teachers because teachers and the teaching profession is not held in high esteem. Teacher education programs therefore do not attract students who have very good grades. It is worth noting that, it is not the recruiting procedure only that determines whether or not teacher education will be prestigious, however recruiting candidates with high grades, ensures that after training, teachers will exhibit the two characteristics essential to effective teaching – quality and effectiveness. Teacher education can be effective if the teaching profession is held in high esteem and therefore able to attract the best of applicants. Otherwise, irrespective of incentives put into place to attract applicants and irrespective of the measures that will be put in place to strengthen teacher education, teacher education programs cannot fully achieve its purpose.

In order to strengthen teacher preparation, there is the need for teacher preparation programs to provide good training during the initial teacher training stage, and provide and sustain support during the first few years after the teachers have been employed. That is why Lumpe (2007) supports the idea that pre-service teacher education programs should ensure teachers have gained a good understanding of effective teaching strategies. Methodology classes therefore should center on effective teaching strategies. Irrespective of the pathway the training program takes, the program must be structured such that trainees gain knowledge about pedagogy, besides the knowledge of subject matter. They should also get enough exposure to practical classroom experience like the on-campus and off-campus teaching practice. Whether or not there is the need to fill vacancies in the classroom due to the high teacher attrition, many countries face, teacher preparation programs should aim at producing quality and effective teacher and not just filling vacancies.

3.0 DETERMINANTS OF TEACHER QUALITY

Teacher quality has such enormous influence on students’ learning. Anyone who has been in the teaching business will agree that teacher quality is central to education reform efforts. Priagula, Agam & Solmon (2007) described teacher quality as an important in-school factor that impact significantly on students’ learning. Quality teachers have positive impact on the success of students. Where the students have quality and effective teachers the students make learning gains while those with ineffective teachers show declines. With respect to the classroom teacher, teacher quality is a continuous process of doing self-assessment so as to have professional development and a self-renewal, in order to enhance teaching. For the teacher educator, an effective or quality teacher is one who has a good subject-matter and pedagogy knowledge, which the he/she can build upon.

Outstanding teachers possess and exhibit many exemplary qualities. They have the skills, subject matter, and pedagogy to reach every child. They help equip their students with the knowledge and breadth of awareness to make sound and independent judgments. Three determinants of teacher quality will be considered here. They are; pedagogical knowledge, subject-matter content knowledge and experience.

3.1 PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE

Trainees of every profession receive some sort of education that will give them insight into and prepare them for the task ahead. That of the teacher is called Pedagogical Content Knowledge or Pedagogical Knowledge. Pedagogical Content Knowledge can be described as, knowledge the teachers use in organizing classrooms, delivering the content the students must show mastery over and for managing the students entrusted into their care. Generally speaking, pedagogical knowledge is knowledge the teacher uses to facilitate students’ learning. Pedagogical Content Knowledge is in two major forms – teachers’ knowledge of the students’ pre-conceptions and teachers’ knowledge of teaching methodologies. Students come to class with a host of pre-conceptions relating to the things they are learning. The pre-conceptions may or may not be consistent with the actual subject-matter that is delivered. Teachers must have a good idea of both kinds of preconception, in order to help students, replace the inconsistent pre-conceptions or build upon the consistent pre-conceptions to bring about meaningful learning. Teachers must have a repertoire of teaching methodologies for facilitating students’ learning. When the methodologies are applied wrongly little or no learning occurs in students. In effect when either of the two is weak, the teacher becomes a bad one because that teacher will not be able to execute his/her responsibility in the vocation he/she has chosen. Due to this during teacher preparation, Pedagogical Content Knowledge is emphasized.

Teachers gain Pedagogical Content Knowledge from various sources. Friedrichsen, Abell, Pareja, Brown, Lankford and Volkmann (2009) distinguished three potential sources of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. They listed the sources as professional development programs, teaching experiences and lastly teachers’ own learning experiences. During their days as students in teacher education programs, teachers are assisted in variety ways to gain Pedagogical Content Knowledge. For examples, during practice, they learn how to put the pedagogical skills they learnt. Teacher education programs and other professional development programs create avenues for teachers to gain pedagogical content knowledge through workshops, lectures, working together with colleagues, and in teaching practice. Then their experiences in their classrooms as they teach students lead them to gain insight into which methodologies work under best under specific situations. That last source is usually ignored. It indicates that the professional knowledge of the teacher begins to develop long before the teacher becomes a candidate entering into teacher education. This means, the way teachers teach influences to a large extent the prospective teachers’ professional knowledge and beliefs. This type of learning is, generally, overlooked by teachers at all levels because unintentional and informal, it is.

Pedagogical Content Knowledge can be gained through formal and informal means. Learning opportunities for pedagogical content knowledge, formally, designed by institutions, based on learning objectives which generally are prerequisite for certification, constitutes the formal means. In formal learning, students have clear ideas about the objective of acquiring pedagogical skills. Informal learning, on the other hand, is not organized intentionally. It takes place incidentally and so can be considered as ‘side effect’. As Kleickmann et al (2012) described it, it has no goal with respect to learning outcomes, and it is contextualized to a large extent. This is often called learning by experience. Informal, but deliberative, learning situations exists. This occurs in situations such as learning in groups, mentoring, and intentional practicing of some skills or tools. Werquin (2010) described informal, but deliberative, learning as non-formal learning. Unlike formal learning, non-formal learning does not occur in educational institutions and does not attract certification. Whether pedagogical content knowledge

Pedagogical Content Knowledge is used to bridges the gap between content knowledge and actual teaching. By bridging the gap, it ensures that discussions of content are relevant to teaching and that discussions themselves are focused on the content. As such, Pedagogical Content Knowledge is something teachers must pay attention to. Teachers who possess and use good Pedagogical content knowledge have good control over classroom management and assessment, knowledge about learning processes, teaching methods, and individual characteristics (Harr, Eichler, & Renkl, 2014). Such teachers are able to create an atmosphere that facilitates learning and are also able to present or facilitate the learning of concepts by even lazy students. They are able to make learning easier by students hence teacher with high pedagogical content knowledge can be classified as quality teachers. It is worth noting that it is not pedagogical content knowledge only that makes good teachers. A teacher will not be good if he/she is master of pedagogical knowledge but lacks subject matter content knowledge.

3.2 SUBJECT-MATTER KNOWLEDGE

The goal of teaching is to help learners develop intellectual resources that will enable them participate fully in the main domains of human taught and enquiry. The degree to which the teacher can assist students to learn depends on the subject-matter the teacher possesses. That is to say, teachers’ knowledge of subject-matter has influence on their efforts to assist students to learn that subject-matter. If a teacher is ignorant or not well informed he/she cannot do students any good, he/she will rather much harm them. When the teacher conceives knowledge in such a way that it is narrow, or do not have accurate information relating to a particular subject-matter, he/she will pass on these same shallow or inaccurate information to students. This kind of teacher will hardly recognize the consistent pre-conceptions and challenge the misconceptions of students. Such a teacher can introduce misconceptions as he/she uses texts uncritically or inappropriately alter them. It is the teacher’s conception of knowledge that shapes the kind of questions he/she asks and the ideas he/she reinforces as well as the sorts of tasks the teacher designs.

Teachers’ subject-matter matter content knowledge must go beyond the specific topics of their curriculum. This is because the teacher does not only define concepts for students. Teachers explain to students why a particular concept or definition is acceptable, why learners must know it and how it relates to other concepts or definitions. This can be done properly if the teacher possesses a good understanding of the subject-matter. This type of understanding includes an understanding of the intellectual context and value of the subject-matter. The understanding of subject matter generally reinforces the teacher’s confidence in delivering lessons, thereby making him/her a good teacher.

3.3 EXPERIENCE

Experience is one of the factors that account for variations in teacher salary, the world over (Hanushek and Rivkin, 2006). The fact that salary differences are based on the number of years the teacher has served, suggests that employers believe the teachers experience makes him/her a better teacher and such a teacher must be motivated to remain in the service. Though some studies like that Hanushek (2011) have suggested that the experience positively influences teacher quality only in the first few years, and that beyond five years, experience ceases to have positive impact on teacher efficacy, common sense tells us the one who has been doing something for a long time does better and with ease. Experience will therefore continue to pay, since, more experienced teachers have the propensity to know more about the subject-matter they teach, and think and behave appropriately in the classroom, and have much more positive attitudes toward their students.

Teachers who have spent more years of teaching, usually, feel self-assured in their skill to use instructional and assessment tools. These teachers are able to reach even the most difficult-to-reach students in their classrooms. They also have greater confidence in their capability to control the class and prevent incidence that might make the teaching and learning process difficult. Their experience makes them much more patient and tolerant than their counterpart with few years of experience (Wolters & Daugherty, 2007). Novice teachers progressively gain and develop teaching and classroom management skills needed to make them effective teachers. They spend time learning themselves – trying to understand fully the job they have entered. The teachers who have spent more years teaching have gained a rich store of knowledge the less experience teachers will be trying to build. Teachers’ sense of effectiveness is generally associated with good attitudes, behaviors and interactions with their students. This is something the experienced teacher has already acquired. These explain why more experienced teachers are usually more effective teachers than the novices.

Another reason more experienced teachers tend to be better teachers than their inexperienced counterparts, is that, experienced teachers have gained additional training, and hence, have acquired additional teaching skills, needed to be effective from direct experience. Usually the training of teachers does not end at the initial teacher training stage. After graduation, teachers attend capacity building seminars, workshops and conferences. These give teachers the opportunity to learn emerging teaching techniques and also refresh their memories on the things they have learnt. Such seminars, workshops and conferences mostly add to the teacher’s store of knowledge. The other advantage the experienced teachers have is that they have encountered more situations to develop the skills needed to be effective teachers through additional direct, and sometimes indirect experiences. That is to say, they have encountered challenging situations which gave them the opportunity to build their skills. Whether they were able to overcome these challenging situation or not, does not matter so much. If the teachers encounter difficult situations in their classes, they learn from them. If the teachers are able to overcome difficult situations, they get to know how to resolve such situations at the next encounter, otherwise their reflections and suggestions from co-teachers gives them ideas about how to approach same or similar situations. They also have a greater chance of being exposed to current and competent models. More experienced teachers have a higher chance of demonstrating superior self-efficacy in most areas, because they have learned the needed classroom management and instructional skills from their colleagues. Teachers who have been in active service for many years are most likely to be classified as quality teachers, because of what they have learnt from in-service training, capacity building workshops and seminars, their interaction with other teachers and what they have learnt from experience in their classrooms.

4.0 CONCLUSION

Teacher education aims at providing teacher education program through initial teacher training for teacher trainees, and in-service training for practicing teachers in order to produce knowledgeable and committed teachers for effective teaching and learning. To realize this mission, teacher education programs have been instituted for the training of teachers. These programs differ from one country to another. Even within the same country, there may be different programs training teachers for the same certificate. These alternative programs are a created, specially, where there are shortages of teachers, and attempts are being made to train large numbers of teachers at a time. These alternative programs ease the teacher certification requirement, allowing those who under normal circumstances would not become teachers. This introduces serious challenges. Because large numbers of teachers are needed within a short period, their training is somewhat fast-tracked resulting in what is usually referred to as half-baked teachers – teachers of lower quality. Applicants who did not gain admission into the program of their choice come into teaching only because they have nowhere else to go. Such applicants tend not to be dedicated to the teaching service in the end. Fast-tracking initial teacher preparation actually harm the mission for which the initial teacher training institutions were created. This is because the teacher produced through such training are usually not of high quality.

Teacher preparation has a direct impact on students’ achievement. The most important in-school factors upon which student’s success hinges, is a teacher who has been well prepared. A well-prepared teacher is one who has gone through a strong teacher preparation program. It is therefore necessary for educators to work to create needed improvements in teacher preparation. To strengthen teacher preparation, teacher preparation programs must provide strong preparation during the initial teacher training period and give support to fresh teachers until they are inducted. Pre-service teacher education should emphasize the acquisition of effective teaching strategies. This can be done in methodology classes and corresponding field experiences. Students who have quality teachers make achievement gains, while those with ineffective teachers show declines, therefore having high quality teachers in classrooms has a positive impact on students’ achievements.

Pedagogical content knowledge, subject matter content knowledge and experience determines the quality of a teacher. Teachers make subject-matter accessible to students by using Pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge has two broad areas of knowledge: teachers’ knowledge of students’ subject-matter pre-conceptions and teachers’ knowledge of teaching strategies. What Pedagogical content knowledge does is that, it links subject-matter content knowledge and the practice of teaching, making sure that discussions on content are appropriate and that, discussions focus on the content and help students to retain the content. The teacher’s job is to facilitate the learning of subject-matter by students. The degree to which the teacher can assist students to learn depends on the subject-matter content knowledge the teacher possesses. Teachers who possess inaccurate information or comprehend the subject-matter in narrow ways, harm students by passing on the same false or shallow subject-matter knowledge to their students. The last of the three determinants of teacher quality is experience. Teachers who have served more years gain additional and more specific training by attending seminars, conferences and workshops and in-service training and so tend to understand their job better. They also might have met and solved many challenging situations in their classroom and therefore know exactly what to do in any situation.

5.0 REFERENCES

Accomplished California Teachers (2015). A coherent system of teacher evaluation for quality teaching. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23(17) 1 – 23.

Benneh, M. (2006). Particular issues on teacher education and training in Ghana. Dakar, Senegal: UNESCO.

Friedrichsen, P. J., Abell, S. K., Pareja, E. M., Brown, P. L., Lankford, D. M., & Volkmann, M. J. (2009). Does teaching experience matter? Examining biology teachers’ prior knowledge for teaching in an alternative certification program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46, 357-383.

Hanushek, E. A. (2011). The economic value of higher teacher quality.” Economics of

Education Review 30, 466-479.

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality.” In E. A. Hanushek, & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education, vol. 2 (pp.1051-1078). Amsterdam: North Holland.

Harr, N., Eichler, A., & Renkl, A. (2014). Integrating pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical/psychological knowledge in mathematics. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 924.

Kleickmann, T., Richter, D., Kunter, M., Elsner, J., Besser, M., Krauss, S., & Baumert, J. (2012). Teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge: The role of structural differences in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 20(10). 1 -17.

Levine, A. (2006). Educating school teachers. Washington, DC: Education Schools Project. Retrieved from http://www.edschools.org/teacher_report.htm

Lumpe, T. A. (2007). Application of effective schools and teacher quality research to science teacher education. Journal of Science Teacher Education 18, 345-348.

Ogawa, H., Fujii, H., & Ikuo, A. (2013). Teacher education in japan through training program with experiment study. Chemical Education Journal (CEJ), 15, 1 – 10.

Priagula, C., Agam, K. F., & Solmon, L. C. (2007). How stakeholders can support teacher quality. Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Publishing.

Werquin, P. (2010). Recognising non-formal and informal learning: Outcomes, policies and practices. Paris, France: OECD publishing.

Wolters, C. A., & Daugherty, S. G. (2007). Goal Structures and teachers’ sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of Educational Psychology 99(1), 181-193.

This is a Sidebar position. Add your widgets in this position using Default Sidebar or a custom sidebar.